Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869 – 1948 ) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He pioneered the concept of resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience and total nonviolence. It helped India to gain independence. Sadly, Gandhi was assassinated while he was walking to a platform from which he was to address a prayer meeting. His assassin was a Hindu nationalist with links to a Hindu extremist group, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan.